The Tree data structure

#data-structures series

Posted on February 13, 2016

The #data-structures series is a collection of posts about reimplemented data structures in JavaScript.

If you are not familiar with data structures, a quick introduction and the full list of reimplemented data structures can be found in the introduction post of the series on data structures in JavaScript.

If you feel comfortable with the concept of each data structure and only want to see the code, have a look at the summary post of the series. It removes all explanations and contains only the JavaScript code for all data structures discussed in the series.

Get the code on Github

Of course, all the code can also be found on Github in the repository data-structures-in-javascript.

The Tree data structure

Definition

A Tree is a widely used data structure that simulates a hierarchical tree structure, with a root value and subtrees of children with a parent node. A tree data structure can be defined recursively as a collection of nodes (starting at a root node), where each node is a data structure consisting of a value, together with a list of references to nodes (the “children”), with the constraints that no reference is duplicated, and none points to the root node. From Wikipedia

Complexity

Average
Access Search Insertion Deletion
O(n) O(n) O(n) O(n)

To get a full overview of the time and space complexity of the Tree data structure, have a look to this excellent Big O cheat sheet.

The code

``````function Node(data) {
this.data = data;
this.children = [];
}

function Tree() {
this.root = null;
}

var node = new Node(data);
var parent = toNodeData ? this.findBFS(toNodeData) : null;
if(parent) {
parent.children.push(node);
} else {
if(!this.root) {
this.root = node;
} else {
return 'Root node is already assigned';
}
}
};
Tree.prototype.remove = function(data) {
if(this.root.data === data) {
this.root = null;
}

var queue = [this.root];
while(queue.length) {
var node = queue.shift();
for(var i = 0; i < node.children.length; i++) {
if(node.children[i].data === data) {
node.children.splice(i, 1);
} else {
queue.push(node.children[i]);
}
}
}
};
Tree.prototype.contains = function(data) {
return this.findBFS(data) ? true : false;
};
Tree.prototype.findBFS = function(data) {
var queue = [this.root];
while(queue.length) {
var node = queue.shift();
if(node.data === data) {
return node;
}
for(var i = 0; i < node.children.length; i++) {
queue.push(node.children[i]);
}
}
return null;
};
Tree.prototype._preOrder = function(node, fn) {
if(node) {
if(fn) {
fn(node);
}
for(var i = 0; i < node.children.length; i++) {
this._preOrder(node.children[i], fn);
}
}
};
Tree.prototype._postOrder = function(node, fn) {
if(node) {
for(var i = 0; i < node.children.length; i++) {
this._postOrder(node.children[i], fn);
}
if(fn) {
fn(node);
}
}
};
Tree.prototype.traverseDFS = function(fn, method) {
var current = this.root;
if(method) {
this['_' + method](current, fn);
} else {
this._preOrder(current, fn);
}
};
Tree.prototype.traverseBFS = function(fn) {
var queue = [this.root];
while(queue.length) {
var node = queue.shift();
if(fn) {
fn(node);
}
for(var i = 0; i < node.children.length; i++) {
queue.push(node.children[i]);
}
}
};
Tree.prototype.print = function() {
if(!this.root) {
return console.log('No root node found');
}
var newline = new Node('|');
var queue = [this.root, newline];
var string = '';
while(queue.length) {
var node = queue.shift();
string += node.data.toString() + ' ';
if(node === newline && queue.length) {
queue.push(newline);
}
for(var i = 0; i < node.children.length; i++) {
queue.push(node.children[i]);
}
}
console.log(string.slice(0, -2).trim());
};
Tree.prototype.printByLevel = function() {
if(!this.root) {
return console.log('No root node found');
}
var newline = new Node('\n');
var queue = [this.root, newline];
var string = '';
while(queue.length) {
var node = queue.shift();
string += node.data.toString() + (node.data !== '\n' ? ' ' : '');
if(node === newline && queue.length) {
queue.push(newline);
}
for(var i = 0; i < node.children.length; i++) {
queue.push(node.children[i]);
}
}
console.log(string.trim());
};

var tree = new Tree();
tree.print(); // => ceo | cto cfo cmo | dev1 dev2 dev3 accountant
tree.printByLevel();  // => ceo \n cto cfo cmo \n dev1 dev2 dev3 accountant
console.log('tree contains dev1 is true:', tree.contains('dev1')); // => true
console.log('tree contains dev4 is false:', tree.contains('dev4')); // => false
console.log('--- BFS');
tree.traverseBFS(function(node) { console.log(node.data); }); // => ceo cto cfo cmo dev1 dev2 dev3 accountant
console.log('--- DFS preOrder');
tree.traverseDFS(function(node) { console.log(node.data); }, 'preOrder'); // => ceo cto dev1 dev2 dev3 cfo accountant cmo
console.log('--- DFS postOrder');
tree.traverseDFS(function(node) { console.log(node.data); }, 'postOrder'); // => dev1 dev2 dev3 cto accountant cfo cmo ceo
tree.remove('cmo');
tree.print(); // => ceo | cto cfo | dev1 dev2 dev3 accountant
tree.remove('cfo');
tree.print(); // => ceo | cto | dev1 dev2 dev3
``````